Crimson Publishers High Impact Journals

Friday, June 26, 2020

Review of Timber connections: Connector Plate, Cleats, Studies and Dovetail Connections_ Crimson Publishers


Review of Timber connections: Connector Plate, Cleats, Studies and Dovetail Connections by Kristopher Orlowski* in Advancements in Civil Engineering & Technology_ Open Journal of Civil Engineering

 

Timber Connections
The strength of a building relies heavily upon the transfer of load from one connection to another [1,2]. A solid and reliable connection method must be utilized to increase the strength of timber panel and enable the structure to withhold an excessive amount of stress [3-5]. In wood buildings, an effective connection will provide the building with strength and ductility [6]. However, there are many connections needed in a wooden structure therefore an economical and durable connection is required to assemble a prefabricated panel quickly and inexpensively in mass production [6].

Connector Plate
A simple and affordable connector typically used in walls for joining the horizontal plates is the nail plate. This type of connection is more commonly used as a horizontal connection however can be utilized in a vertical direction if the load is not exceeding the safety limits. Pryda provides a wide variety of nail plates suitable for different structures and loads [7]. The connector plate and knuckle nail plate are galvanized steel connectors with in-built, bent up knuckle nails. They are applied by firmly hammering or pressing the in-built nails into each side of the timber to be connected the latter of which can be automated with a press or roller. Typically, there are 4 columns by 8 rows of in-built nails with an approximate capacity per nail of 280 N in the parallel direction and 95 N perpendicular. To increase the load capacity of the connection, holes are present within the nail plate to apply external nails through the nail plate and into the wood (Table 1).


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Thursday, June 25, 2020

Literary Role of Local Poets & Writers of Muzaffargarh District_ Crimson Publishers


Literary Role of Local Poets & Writers of Muzaffargarh District by Pradeep Kumar Panda* in Archaeology & Anthropology: Open Access_ American Journal of Archaeology

 

Abstract
Literature has great influence on the socio cultural life of the people in any civilized society. It changed the condition of the people as the poetry of W.W Worth and the magnificent literary work of Rousseau inspired the people of France. In same contents Muzaffargarh is a small region of Pakistan but its land is fertile for literature. Several local poets and writers have great value due their glorious literary work. Their efforts and positive contribution played an important role during the freedom movement as well as to awaken the people against colonial and feudal system in India and then in Pakistan. The poetry and writings of these intellectuals have great impact on the society of Muzaffargarh District and this paper highlights some famous local poet and writers of Muzaffargarh District of Pakistan.

Introduction
Muzaffargarh is an important district of South Punjab and it is considered a backward area but the fact are totally against this perception. Lot of poets and scholars belong to this small region and they had always played a splendid role in the social construction of the society. In this research paper it has been tried to explore the literary efforts of some famous intellectuals of the district Muzaffargarh. Among them Kashfi Multani, Naseem, Mehabdul Haq and many others are very famous. This paper is an attempt to highlight their literary contribution.

Literature Review
For this research paper the concerning books are the main source of literature review as the District Gazetteer, Multan Nama, Adbiat, “Multan men Urdu Shairi” Saraiki Khazana, Tareekh Layyah, News Papers etc. While historic method has been adopted for this research on qualitative basis.

Discussion
Some prominent intellectuals and their role is as following for the construction of the society.


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Restrictive Versus Liberal Fluid Bolus Therapy in Pediatric Septic Shock: Should It Be Debated_ Crimson Publishers


Restrictive Versus Liberal Fluid Bolus Therapy in Pediatric Septic Shock: Should It Be Debated by Saptadi Yuliarto* in Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology_ The Journal of Pediatrics


Abstract
To date, sepsis has contributed significantly to the child mortality rate, which is around 8.9% in developed countries to 14.2% in developing countries [1-3]. The most common cause of death (23.1-34.6%) was refractory shock [2-4], of which most occured in the first 3 days [5]. An additional hour of persistent shock was associated with >2-fold increased odds of mortality [6]. This shows that early treatment of septic shock is one of the keys to reduce sepsis mortality.

Fluid bolus is the main therapy for pediatric septic shock. International consensus recommends fluid bolus therapy (FBT) 10-60mL/kg in the first hour, accompanied by monitoring for hepatomegaly or increased work of breathing [7]. Resuscitation practice consistent with these guidelines can reduce mortality [6,8,9]. Current international guideline was based on some outstanding pioneer studies; unfortunately, all of them are retrospective observational and single-center studies, with a small sample size. Thus, it needs to be reevaluated whether the effectiveness of FBT in daily practice, certainly has a causal relationship with patient survival, or it was just a representation of lower severity illness in the survivor group.

FEAST (Fluid expansion as Supportive Therapy) trial, the first randomized control trial (RCT) study, with many subjects (3141 subjects) and multicenter in Africa, became the starting point for re-evaluation of FBT in recent years. In subjects with severe infections accompanied by impaired consciousness, respiration and perfusion, this study showed FBT of normal saline or 5% albumin given 20-40mL/kg in 1 hour increased mortality compared to maintenance fluid administration (RR=1.45, 95% CI, 1.13 -1.86; p=0.003) [10]. Although some conditions were considered as research limitation (absent mechanical ventilation, positive malaria and anemia [Hb<5g/dL] in most subjects), inevitably these results sparked debate which underlies several studies or clinical trial to compare the efficacy of restrictive and liberal FBT.

Before determining its effect on the outcome, it is necessary to take into consideration what is the definition of “restrictive and liberal”? Is it based on the volume of each bolus, the total volume of resuscitation, the total daily volume, or the rate of delivery? This must be established in order to produce same operational definition of the study. This definition is also important to determine the factors that most influence the patient’s outcome.

A pilot study in UK compared bolus volumes of 10mL/kg (maximum 500mL per bolus) and 20mL/kg (maximum 1000mL per bolus) in 15 minutes. The maximum volume in 4 hours was 120mL/kg. As a result, the total volume of resuscitation in the restricted group was lower than conservative (14.5% vs 25.7mL/kg, p <0.001); however, there were no differences in mortality, length of PICU and hospital stay, and PICU free days in 30 days [11]. It has to be noticed that this study conducted in the developed countries with adequate facilities and low disease severity. Moreover, the total volume of conservative group resuscitation was 20.7mL/ kg in the first hour and 25.7mL/kg in 4 hours; much less than the FBT volume in international guidelines. Consequently, the results could not simply generalize in the daily practice.

Another study in the adult population with septic shock compared the restrictive (≤60mL/ kg in 72 hours) and conservative groups (no volume limit). Similar to studies in children, there were differences in total fluid volume in 72 hours between the restrictive and conservative groups (47.1mL/kg vs. 61.1mL/ kg, respectively; p=0.01); however there were no differences in mortality, incidence of organ failure, ICU and hospital length of stay, or serious adverse effects within 30 days [12]. The 72 hour fluid volume in this study was far less than the international guidelines and several previous studies, including: Rivers (168mL/kg) , [13] Process (108-130mL/kg), [14] Promise (98mL/kg), [15] or arise (108-109mL/kg) [16]. The total volume in 72 hours consisted of resuscitation and non-resuscitation (maintenance) fluids. This revealed that organ perfusion may still be adequate with a small volume of resuscitation, because patients still get additional maintenance fluid afterwards.

Designed to compare restrictive and liberal FBT, however those two studies were unable to solve the problem because the FBT volumes given were less than international guidelines and daily practices. In the pediatric studies, low severity illnesses might be the reason why such patients responded to the small volumes of FBT [11]. In adult studies, unblinded intervention methods and a tendency to limit the FBT volume in daily practice cause both groups got smaller volumes [12]. Therefore, it seems that so far there has not been an adequate study to determine the effect of different FBT volumes on patient outcomes.


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Review of Timber connections: Connector Plate, Cleats, Studies and Dovetail Connections_ Crimson Publishers

Review of Timber connections: Connector Plate, Cleats, Studies and Dovetail Connections by Kristopher Orlowski* in Advancements in Civ...